Lichen Planus: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Lichen Planus: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment


Lichen planus (also known as  Lichenoid keratoses )is a relatively uncommon, yet intriguing skin condition that affects people of all ages. Characterized by its distinctive appearance and potential discomfort, this dermatological ailment can raise questions and concerns. In this article, we will explore lichen planus, shedding light on its symptoms, potential causes, and available treatments.

Lichen planus

Understanding Lichen Planus

Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that can also affect mucous membranes, such as the mouth and genitals. It typically presents as an eruption of small, flat-topped, itchy bumps or lesions on the skin. These lesions often have a polygonal or angular shape and a purplish hue. When lichen planus affects the mucous membranes, it can lead to white, lacy patches or sores.

Symptoms of Lichen Planus

  1. Skin Lesions: The most common symptom is the appearance of small, itchy, flat-topped bumps on the skin, particularly on the wrists, ankles, lower back, and neck.
  2. Mucous Membrane Involvement: When lichen planus affects mucous membranes, it can cause painful sores in the mouth (oral lichen planus) or genital area (genital lichen planus). This can lead to discomfort while eating or engaging in sexual activity.
  3. Nail Changes: Lichenoid keratoses can affect the nails, causing ridges, grooves, or nail thinning.
  4. Scalp and Hair: In some cases, Lichenoid keratoses may lead to hair loss, scarring, and redness of the scalp.
  5. Itching: Itchy skin is a common symptom, and excessive scratching can lead to skin damage and infection.

here are the symptoms of lichen planus presented in a bullet-point format:

Symptoms of Lichen Planus

  1. Skin Lesions:
    • Small, flat-topped bumps or papules on the skin.
    • Lesions are typically shiny and reddish-purple in color.
    • Polygonal or angular shape of the lesions.
    • Itchy skin, often leading to scratching and potential skin damage.
  2. Mucous Membrane Involvement:
    • Oral Lichen Planus: Painful sores or white, lacy patches inside the mouth.
    • Genital Lichen Planus: Similar sores or white lesions on the genitals, causing discomfort during sexual activity.
  3. Nail Changes:
    • Ridges, grooves, or thinning of the nails.
    • Nails may become brittle and prone to breakage.
  4. Scalp and Hair Involvement:
    • Redness and irritation of the scalp.
    • Hair loss in affected areas, which may be permanent in some cases.
  5. Itching:
    • Pruritus (itching) is a common symptom of Lichenoid keratoses.
    • Intense itching can lead to skin damage, open sores, and potential secondary infections.
  6. Hyperpigmentation or Hypopigmentation:
    • Darkening (hyperpigmentation) or lightening (hypopigmentation) of the skin in areas affected by Lichenoid keratoses.
  7. Koebner Phenomenon:
    • Some individuals may experience new lichen planus lesions at sites of skin injury or trauma, a phenomenon known as the Koebner phenomenon.
  8. Pain and Discomfort:
    • Oral lichen planus and genital lichen planus can cause pain and discomfort, particularly during eating or sexual activity, respectively.
  9. Psychological Impact:
    • Lichen planus can have a psychological impact due to its appearance and potential discomfort, leading to stress or reduced quality of life.

It’s important to note that the severity and presentation of lichen planus can vary among individuals. If you suspect you have Lichenoid keratoses or are experiencing any of these symptoms, it’s advisable to seek medical evaluation and guidance from a healthcare provider or dermatologist for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Causes of Lichen Planus

The exact cause of lichen planus remains elusive, but several factors and theories are associated with its development:

  1. Autoimmune Reaction: Some experts believe that lichen planus may result from an autoimmune response, where the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy skin cells and mucous membranes.
  2. Genetics: There may be a genetic predisposition, as lichen planus sometimes runs in families.
  3. Infections: Certain infections, such as hepatitis C, may trigger Lichenoid keratoses in some individuals.
  4. Medications: In rare cases, certain medications, including some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors, have been linked to Lichenoid keratoses as a side effect.
  5. Stress: Psychological stress or trauma may exacerbate Lichenoid keratoses symptoms in some individuals.

Treatment Options

While there is no cure for lichen planus, several treatment options are available to manage its symptoms and alleviate discomfort:

  1. Topical Steroids: Corticosteroid creams or ointments can reduce inflammation and itching.
  2. Oral Medications: In severe cases, oral corticosteroids, retinoids, or antihistamines may be prescribed.
  3. Light Therapy: Phototherapy with ultraviolet (UV) light can help alleviate symptoms.
  4. Immune Modulators: Tacrolimus or pimecrolimus creams can help suppress the immune response in localized areas.
  5. Oral Rinses: For oral Lichenoid keratoses, mouthwashes or gels containing corticosteroids or other medications may be recommended.
  6. Avoiding Triggers: Identifying and avoiding potential triggers, such as certain medications or stress, can help manage Lichenoid keratoses.

here are the treatment options for Lichenoid keratoses presented in a bullet-point format:

Treatment Options for Lichen Planus

  1. Topical Corticosteroids:
    • Application of corticosteroid creams or ointments directly to affected skin lesions.
    • Helps reduce inflammation, itching, and discomfort.
    • Mild to moderate cases often respond well to topical corticosteroids.
  2. Oral Corticosteroids:
    • Prescribed for severe or widespread Lichenoid keratoses that doesn’t respond to topical treatments.
    • Can provide more significant anti-inflammatory effects but may have potential side effects.
  3. Topical Calcineurin Inhibitors:
    • Tacrolimus or pimecrolimus creams may be used, especially for sensitive areas like the face or genitalia.
    • Suppress the immune response in localized areas to alleviate symptoms.
  4. Antihistamines:
    • Over-the-counter or prescription antihistamines can help relieve itching associated with Lichenoid keratoses.
  5. Phototherapy (Light Therapy):
    • Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, often in a controlled medical setting.
    • UVB or PUVA (psoralen plus ultraviolet A) therapy may be used to manage symptoms.
  6. Oral Retinoids:
    • Isotretinoin or acitretin may be prescribed for severe cases.
    • Helps reduce inflammation and promote skin healing.
  7. Oral Immune Modulators:
    • Drugs like methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil may be used in resistant cases.
    • Modulate the immune system’s response to control inflammation.
  8. Oral Rinses and Gels:
    • For oral Lichenoid keratoses, mouthwashes or gels containing corticosteroids or other medications can provide relief.
  9. Avoiding Triggers:
    • Identify and avoid potential triggers, such as certain medications or stress, to manage Lichenoid keratoses.
  10. Dental Care:
    • Maintain good oral hygiene practices to prevent complications of oral Lichenoid keratoses and reduce the risk of secondary infections.
  11. Supportive Care:
    • Use of moisturizers or emollients to soothe dry and itchy skin.
    • Wearing loose-fitting clothing to minimize friction on affected areas.
  12. Regular Follow-Up:
    • Periodic follow-up with a healthcare provider or dermatologist to monitor the condition and adjust treatment as needed.

It’s essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan tailored to the severity and location ofLichenoid keratoses. Treatment approaches may vary from person to person, and the goal is to manage symptoms, reduce discomfort, and improve the quality of life for individuals with Lichenoid keratoses.


Lichen planus is a challenging skin condition that can affect both physical and emotional well-being. While it may not be preventable or curable, early diagnosis and appropriate management can significantly improve the quality of life for individuals with Lichenoid keratoses. If you suspect you have Lichenoid keratoses or are experiencing symptoms, it’s essential to consult a dermatologist or healthcare provider for proper evaluation and guidance on treatment options.

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