Lymphogranuloma Venereum: Unraveling a Rare but Emerging STI

Lymphogranuloma Venereum: Unraveling a Rare but Emerging STI


Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a lesser-known sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by certain strains of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Although less common than other STIs like chlamydia or gonorrhea, LGV has been on the rise in recent years. This article aims to shed light on what LGV is, its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and the importance of awareness in preventing its spread.

Lymphogranuloma Venereum

Understanding Lymphogranuloma Venereum

What is Lymphogranuloma Venereum? LGV is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lymphatic system and can lead to the formation of painful, swollen lymph nodes. It is caused by specific serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis, namely L1, L2, and L3.

Transmission: LGV is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, or oral sex. It can also spread through contact with infected genital fluids or through contaminated surfaces.

Stages of LGV: LGV typically progresses through three stages:

  1. Primary Stage: The initial infection manifests as a painless sore or ulcer at the site of exposure (genitals, rectum, or mouth). This sore often goes unnoticed.
  2. Secondary Stage: Within a few weeks to months, secondary symptoms may appear, including swollen lymph nodes in the groin or pelvic area, fever, and fatigue. These symptoms are often mistaken for other conditions.
  3. Tertiary Stage: If left untreated, LGV can progress to a more severe stage, characterized by the formation of abscesses, fistulas, and scarring in the genital and rectal areas.

Causes of LGV

Chlamydia trachomatis Serotypes: LGV is caused by specific serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis, which have a greater propensity to invade lymphatic tissues compared to other chlamydial strains.

High-Risk Sexual Behavior: Engaging in unprotected sex with multiple partners, particularly in regions with a higher prevalence of LGV, increases the risk of infection.

Anal Intercourse: LGV is more commonly associated with receptive anal intercourse, which may increase the likelihood of exposure.

Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): MSM are at a higher risk of LGV due to the nature of anal sex and potential for contact with infected rectal secretions.

Symptoms of LGV

Symptoms can vary depending on the stage and location of the infection, but may include:

  1. Painless Sores or Ulcers: These may appear at the site of exposure, often going unnoticed.
  2. Swollen Lymph Nodes: Painful and enlarged lymph nodes in the groin or pelvic region.
  3. Fever and Fatigue: These flu-like symptoms can accompany secondary-stage Lymphogranuloma venereum.
  4. Rectal Symptoms: Infection of the rectum may cause rectal pain, discharge, and bleeding.
  5. Genital Symptoms: Swelling, pain, and discharge from the genital area can occur.
  6. Abscesses and Fistulas: In severe cases, abscesses (collection of pus) and fistulas (abnormal tunnels) may develop in the genital and rectal areas.

here are the key points regarding the symptoms of Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV):

Symptoms of Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV):

  1. Painless Sores or Ulcers (Primary Stage):
    • LGV often begins with a small, painless sore or ulcer at the site of exposure (genitals, rectum, or mouth).
    • This sore may go unnoticed by individuals and is typically not associated with discomfort.
  2. Swollen Lymph Nodes (Secondary Stage):
    • Within a few weeks to months after the primary sore appears, secondary symptoms may develop.
    • The hallmark of secondary LGV is the enlargement of lymph nodes, especially in the groin or pelvic area.
    • These swollen lymph nodes are often painful and tender to the touch.
  3. Flu-Like Symptoms (Secondary Stage):
    • Along with swollen lymph nodes, individuals with secondary Lymphogranuloma venereum may experience flu-like symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and muscle aches.
    • These symptoms can be mistaken for other infections or illnesses.
  4. Rectal Symptoms (Secondary Stage):
    • In cases of rectal exposure, LGV can lead to symptoms such as rectal pain, discomfort, and discharge.
    • Rectal bleeding or ulcers may also occur.
  5. Genital Symptoms (Secondary Stage):
    • If the genital area is affected, individuals may experience genital swelling, pain, and discharge.
    • These symptoms can be similar to those of other sexually transmitted infections.
  6. Abscesses and Fistulas (Tertiary Stage):
    • In severe and untreated cases, Lymphogranuloma venereum can progress to a tertiary stage, characterized by the formation of abscesses (collections of pus) and fistulas (abnormal tunnels) in the genital and rectal areas.
    • Tertiary LGV can result in scarring and complications.
  7. Systemic Symptoms (Tertiary Stage):
    • Tertiary LGV can lead to systemic symptoms, such as fever, weight loss, and joint pain.
  8. Eye Involvement (Rare):
    • LGV can occasionally affect the eyes, leading to symptoms like conjunctivitis (pink eye) or eye inflammation.

It’s important to note that LGV symptoms can vary in severity and may overlap with other medical conditions or sexually transmitted infections. Due to the potentially serious consequences of untreated Lymphogranuloma venereum, individuals who suspect they may have been exposed to LGV or experience any concerning symptoms should seek medical evaluation and testing. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing Lymphogranuloma venereum and preventing complications.

Diagnosis and Treatment


  • Diagnosis involves a combination of clinical evaluation, medical history, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Tests may include nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays.

here are the key points regarding the diagnosis of Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV):

Diagnosis of Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV):

  1. Clinical Evaluation:
    • Diagnosis often begins with a thorough clinical evaluation by a healthcare provider.
    • The healthcare provider will inquire about the patient’s sexual history, potential exposure to LGV, and any symptoms they may be experiencing.
  2. Physical Examination:
    • During a physical examination, the healthcare provider may look for visible signs of LGV, such as swollen and painful lymph nodes, genital sores, or rectal abnormalities.
  3. Laboratory Tests:
    • Laboratory tests are essential for confirming the diagnosis of LGV.
    • Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are commonly used to detect the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, the bacterium responsible for LGV.
    • These tests can identify specific serotypes (L1, L2, or L3) associated with Lymphogranuloma venereum.
  4. Sample Collection:
    • To perform the laboratory tests, samples are collected from the affected areas, which may include genital, rectal, or oral swabs, depending on the potential site of exposure.
  5. Blood Tests:
    • Blood tests may be conducted to check for markers of infection and to assess the overall health of the patient.
    • This may include tests for syphilis, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections, as co-infections can occur.
  6. Differentiating from Other STIs:
    • LGV symptoms can sometimes resemble those of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
    • Laboratory tests are crucial for differentiating LGV from other conditions and ensuring accurate diagnosis.
  7. Follow-Up Testing:
    • Follow-up testing may be recommended to confirm the diagnosis and monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
    • It is important for individuals diagnosed with LGV to complete the full course of prescribed antibiotics and undergo follow-up testing to ensure the infection is cleared.
  8. Partner Notification and Testing:
    • Individuals diagnosed with LGV should inform their sexual partners so that they can also seek testing and treatment if necessary.
    • Partner notification is crucial to prevent further transmission of the infection.
  9. Consultation with a Specialist:
    • In complex or severe cases of LGV, consultation with a specialist, such as an infectious disease physician or a dermatologist, may be necessary to guide treatment and management.

Early diagnosis of LGV is essential to initiate prompt treatment and prevent complications. Anyone who suspects they may have been exposed to LGV or is experiencing symptoms should seek medical evaluation and testing. Timely diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy are key to managing LGV effectively.


  • €is treated with a course of antibiotics, typically doxycycline, for at least 21 days.
  • Treatment can effectively clear the infection and prevent complications.


  • Individuals diagnosed with LGV should be monitored closely during treatment and follow-up to ensure the infection has resolved.

Importance of Awareness and Prevention

Preventing LGV involves practicing safe sex and regular STI screenings. Awareness is crucial, especially for individuals engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors or residing in regions with a higher prevalence of LGV. Encouraging safe sex practices, condom use, and open communication about sexual health can help curb the spread of LGV and other STIs. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing complications and long-term health issues associated with LGV.

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